ROMANIA MOLDOVA BESSARABIA PRIDNESTROVIE 

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During III and IV centuries, between two rivers named Dnestr and Prut, the tribes lived. They created the Cherneahovsky culture which included the Frakitsy, Late Skipfy, Venedy, Bastarny, Sarmaty and others. This culture was formed under the influence of the Late Roman Antic culture. From the end of V to the beginning of VI centuries, Slavonic tribes penetrated these lands and brought their culture to the area. For the next centuries, nomadic tribes of polovtsy, pecheneghy and torky all moved the lands between the Dnestr and Prut.

In the middle of XIII century the Mongolo-tatary invaded this region, and by 1345 they dominated the area. In the first middle of XIV century, Hungary obtained great power forced the Mongolo-tatary to leave this region. In 1359, as the result of a rebellion of the local population against Hungarian domination, it became an independent Moldavian principality headed by Bogdan who was the former Voloshsky military head (voevoda) in Maramuresh and a vassal of the Hungarian King.

 

The map of 1370 year ROMANIA MOLDOVA BESSARABIA PRIDNESTROVIE

The map of 1370 year

The map of 1500 year ROMANIA MOLDOVA BESSARABIA PRIDNESTROVIE

The map of 1500 year

At the beginning of XV century all lands from the Karpaty mountains to the Black sea came into the structure of the Moldavian Principality where the river Dnestr was the eastern boundary. The Moldavian state achieved the most prosperity during the government of Shtefan III the Great. During that time diplomatic, economic and cultural connections were established with neighboring states. At the boundary of XIV-XV centuries the power of Sultanian Turkey was increased.

The map of 1540 year ROMANIA MOLDOVA BESSARABIA PRIDNESTROVIE

The map of 1540 year

From this time there was steady process to create a state of dependence of the Moldavian principality to Ottoman Porta. The capture of Moldavia by the Ottomans in 1538 was a turning event in the history of Moldavian Principality. The important strategic fortresses of Turnu, Djurdjiu, Braila, Kilia, Chetatay Alba, Bendery and others were turned into "the raias" by the strong garrisons. For the best supervision Romanian capitals were moved from the well fortified places to open cities such as Yassy and Bucharest. The domination of the Ottomans was confirmed completely and lasted for about three centuries. In XVII century the Southern part of Pridnestrovie chanced to find herself under the power of Turkey. As a result it was formed the Ulus of the Crimean khanity (district of Ochakovo). But the Northern part came within the Bratslavsky military state of "Rech Pospolitay". The southern part of the Bratslavsky military state was before the rivers Siniuha and Kodyma (named "Wild field"). This place became destitute by invasions of the Crimean tatary; and then populated by the Ukrainian, Russian and Cossacks. The territory of the Southern part of the left bank of Pridnestrovie transitioned to the Russian Empire according to the Yassky Agreement of 1791 as a result of Russian-Turkish war of 1787-1791 years. The Northern part was joined in 1793 as a result of the division of "Rech Pospolitay".

The map of 1795 year ROMANIA MOLDOVA BESSARABIA PRIDNESTROVIE

The map of 1795 year

On the 13 November of 1806 year the Russian army came into the territory of  Moldova. For a short period and almost without a battle Russian troops occupied the Dunaisky principalities. On the 18-th of December 1806, without giving full explanations of the invasion to Moldova and Valahia, Porta declared the war against Russia. In the autumn of 1811, in Djurjiu, the negotiations began between Russia and Turkey with no result. On the 1st of March in1812 these negotiations were renewed in Bucharest. On the 16 May 1812 the World Agreement was subscribed as the result of these negotiations. Moldavian lands between the Dnestr and the Prut, with the fortresses as Soroky, Bendery, Hotin, Chetatey Alba, Kilia and Ismail then named Bessarabia were joined to Russia. The conditions of Yassky Agreement of 1791 year were confirmed concerning the other Romanian principalities. The origin of the administrative system was written in "The Rules of  Temporary Ruling by Bessarabia" in the year 1813. According to these rules local traditions remained in each region. The civil governor was the head of his government and responsible for internal administration of his local region. Civil and criminal cases were decided according to local customs, but police ones (other than criminal) were determined by Russian laws. Business was done in the Russian and Moldavian languages. The native language was preserved also at the schools and in the Churches. In the year 1816 the post of a plenipotentiary leader who ruled by district was introduced in Bessarabia. Beginning in 1818 "The Statute of Formation of Bessarabian Region" was confirmed by Alexander I. The new rules that were established for Administration and the Regional Court were maintained by this law. According to this statute the administrative system of the territory of Bessarabia became similar to the Russian one except the Supreme Soviet with absolute administrative and legal power. The rest organizations hardly didn't differ in anything from ones existed at others national borderlands of Russian Empire. 

The map of 1860 year ROMANIA MOLDOVA BESSARABIA PRIDNESTROVIE

The map of 1860 year

In February 1828 the "Institution for the Ruling of Bessarabian Region" was introduced. This law asserted that the administrative system in Bessarabia was within the Russian Empire. This region then became part of Novorosiiscky under the jurisdiction of the Novorosiiscky governor-general.

On 7 December 1873 the Bessarabian region was transformed into the Bessarabian province and the Supreme Soviet of this region was disbanded. The tsarist government made attempts in every way to attract foreign colonists to Bessarabia, particularly those from the Dunay At the same time there was resettlement of state peasants from Russian central provinces. In 1850 there were about 100.000 people in this region. Prior to this there were just more than 70.000 people in this region. And also spontaneous colonization from Russian and Ukrainian provinces had place with official one there.

The map of 1882 year(Download map) ROMANIA MOLDOVA BESSARABIA PRIDNESTROVIE

The map of 1882 year(Download map)

The area of Bessarabia was 40096.6 versts (squared kilometers) divided into 8 districts: Akkermanscky (7282.7 sq.v), Benderscky (5398.5 sq.v.), Orgeevscky (3632.0 sq.v.), Sorokscky (14010.7 sq.v.), Hotinscky (3501.9sq. v.), Beletscky (4871.0sq. v.), and Ismailscky (8128.0 sq. v.). In 1889 year the population was 1,628,876 people or 40 people per squared verst.

The map of 1896 year ROMANIA MOLDOVA BESSARABIA PRIDNESTROVIE

The map of 1896 year

During the night of 14 August 1916 the Roumanian army went across Karpaty; and for a short time one third of Transylvania including Brashov and Fagarash was annexed by Roumania. However, as they reached the North their attack was stopped by the sudden offense of Bulgarian soldiers coming from the South of Dobrudja. The Roumanian men had to retreat from Muntenia. In January 1917 they transferred their capital to Yassy and stabilized the line of the front at Karpaty near the rivers Siret and Dunay. By doing so they lost three-quarters of all their territory. On 3 March1918 the cessation of hostilities at the East European front lead to the signing of the Brest-Lithuanian peace treaty by Russia and Germany. According to this treaty the portions of the Ukraine before Odessa was occupied by German and Austrian armies. Surrounded from all sides, Roumania concluded the armistice with the countries of the Central Block and then on 22 April1918 the Peace treaty was signed. The Russian February revolution of 1917 year evoked great resonance 
into Bessarabia. On 20 October 1917 the Congress of Moldavian soldiers began its work. It proclaimed "territory-politic autonomy” of Bessarabia including the decision regarding the formation of a Supreme politic body named "Sfatul Tsary" consisting of
120 deputies. On 21 November 1917 this organization began its work in Kishinev under the chairmanship of Ion Inkulets. On 13 January, at the request of Bessarabian deputies, Roumanian armies went into Bessarabia. On 24 January of 1918 year, after the Declaration of Independence of the Ukrainian People's Republic "Sfatul Tsary" proclaimed the independence of the Moldavian People's Republic. On 27 March at the meeting of this organization, 86 deputies (3 peoples were against the motion and 36 ones were abstentions) voted for provisional consolidation of Bessarabia with Roumania. Thus Bessarabia was declared the constituent part of Roumania.

The First World War

On 12 October 1924 the Third Session of Central Executive Committee of the Ukraine passed the resolution to complete the formation of Moldavian autonomy into the Ukraine. New autonomy republic spread all over 11 districts of the Left Bank of Dnestr with the population of 545,5 people. The area of this republic was 8,1 sq.km. The capital was Balta, however after 1929 it became Tiraspol.

 

The map of Moldavia autonomy for 1930 years

The map of Moldavia autonomy for 1930 years

Before the Second World War the USSR and Germany had a treaty according to which the territory of Europe was divided into the spheres of influence between these states. On 23 August 1939 the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the USSR and Germany subscribed to "the pact of non-assault" between the two states. During these negotiations they made a secret additional protocol. According to this protocol under the spheres of influence of the USSR were Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia and Roumania. The third article of this secret protocol attached the interests of USSR to Bessarabia. On 26 June of the year 1940 the Minister of Foreign Affairs presented to the Romanian ambassador Davidesku the equivalent of an ultimatum which dictated restoration of Bessarabia and Nothern Bukovina to Soviet Union. After long discussions with the Royal Soviet of Executives, Roumania accepted this note. On 3 July of 1940 the new frontier at the river Prut was closed. There were 15 infantry, motorizied and cavalry divisions with 7 tank units, landing brigades at this occupied territory. As the result of  this operation USSR joined the territory of Bessarabia (44 ,5 sq.km., with the population of 3,200,000 people) and Nothern Bukovina (6 sq,km., with 500,000 persons). On 22 June of 1941 year German armies violated the frontier of the Soviet Union. That day general Antonesku ordered the army to cross the river Prut without any treaty or convention with Germany. On 27 June, after bloody attacks, the Soviet Army had to leave the territory of Bessarabia and Nothern Bukovina. At the beginning of July, German and Roumanian armies were able to occupy the town Beltsy and go out to the river Dnestr. Then on 12 July the town of Soroky was occupied too. Afterwards, on 15 July others cities such as as Orgeev and Kishinev were occupied by them. On 26 July of 1941 year German and Roumanian armies went to the line of the river Dnestr claiming the entire front from Hotin to the Black Sea. On 6 August of 1941, after the conquest of Transnistria, Hitler allowed Antonesku to govern this region. At the beginning of 1944 year the situation at the front changed suddenly. Soviet armies occupied the Northern part of Bessarabia near Prut. English and American armies prepared for military acts in Normandia, then refused their plans of landing on Balkans in which they had offered the Soviet government to divide the spheres of influence. According to those plans Roumania belonged to USSR and Greece belonged to England. On 12 April 1944 the government of USSR suggested the project of concluding the armistice that foresaw an exit of Roumania from the war, beginning military acts against Germany, re-establishing the borders of 1940, payment of military reparations and so on. Also the Soviet government recognized as unlawful the Vienna treaty of 1940 year and promised to help in the freedom of Northern Transylvania. But Antonesku declined these suggestions. On 20 August 1944 the attack of the Soviet Armyin the direction of Yassy-Kishinev began. That day the Army of the Second Ukrainian front and the Third Ukrainian front from the district of Yassy and Kitskany base had broken the line of enemy's defense. On 23 August the armies ofboth fronts went to the river Prut and near district of Leusheny-Leovo they united.Thus they surrounded 18 divisions of their adversary. The Soviet Army came in Ungheny, Kaushany, Chimishlia, Bendery and Comrat. Then there were Kishinev (24.08), Leovo Kagul, Kotovsk(24-26.08). By 26 August all territory was liberated. After entering Roumania into the war from the side of the coalition against Hitler it has been begun preparation to subscribe the convention of armistice. According to this document dated 12 September 1944, the control of the execution of all obligations by Roumania was given to the Allied Control Commission under the head of Soviet Marshal R. Malinovscky. Right up to the end of the war the administration of economic activity, mail, mass media and all communications were under the control of this Commission. After the end of the Second World War Moldavskaiy Republic entered into USSR.

 

On 27 August of 1991 year during the disintegration of USSR the Parliament of Republic declared the independence of Moldova as a sovereign state. On 2 September 1990, at the territory of the Left Bank of Dnestr in Tiraspol, the Second Extraordinary Congress of Soviets of Pridnestrovian deputies formed the Pridnestrovie (PMSR) with the capital in Tiraspol. This included the territory of the Left Bank of Dnestr, and the town of Bendery at the Right Bank of Dnestr before the frontiers with Ukraine.

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